Accounting principles used in the consolidated financial statements
Basic information on the group
Alma Media is a dynamic digital service business and media company with a strong capacity for renewal. The company’s best-known brands are Kauppalehti, Talouselämä, Iltalehti, Etuovi.com and Monster. Alma Media builds sustainable growth expanding its offering from media to related digital services fulfilling the needs of users’ everyday life as consumers and as professionals in business. Alma Media operates in 11 countries in Europe. The Group’s parent company Alma Media Corporation is a Finnish public company established under Finnish law, domiciled in Helsinki at Alvar Aallon katu 3 C, P.O Box 140, FI-00101 Helsinki.
A copy of the consolidated financial statements is available online at www.almamedia.fi or from the parent company head office.
The Board of Directors approved the financial statements for disclosure on 16 February 2021. According to the Finnish Limited Liability Companies Act, shareholders have the opportunity to approve or reject the financial statements at the General Meeting of Shareholders held after publication. It is also possible to amend the financial statements at the General Meeting of Shareholders.
The figures in the financial statements are independently rounded.
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards, IFRS. The IAS and IFRS standards and SIC and IFRIC interpretations in effect on 31 December 2020 have been applied. International Financial Reporting Standards refer to the standards and their interpretations approved for application in the EU in accordance with thee procedure stipulated
in EU regulation (EU) no 1606/2002 and embodied in Finnish accounting legislation and the statutes enacted under it. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also comply with Finnish accounting and company legislation.
The Group adopted IFRS accounting principles during 2005 and in this connection applied IFRS 1 (First-time adoption), the transition date being 1 January 2004.
The consolidated financial statements are based on the purchase method of accounting unless otherwise specified in the accounting principles below. Figures in the tables in the financial statements are presented in millions of euros.
The Group’s parent company, Alma Media Corporation (corporate ID code FI19447574, called Almanova Corporation until 7 November 2005) was established on 27 January 2005. The company acquired the shares of the previous Alma Media Corporation (corporate ID code FI14495809) during 2005. The acquisition has been treated in the consolidated accounts as a reverse acquisition based on IFRS 3. This means that the acquiring company was the old Alma Media Corporation and the company being acquired was the Group’s current legal parent company, Almanova Corporation. The net fair value of the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the acquisition date did
not differ from their carrying values in the company’s accounts. The acquisition cost was equivalent to the net fair value of the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities and, therefore, no goodwill was created by the acquisition. The accounting principles adopted for the reverse acquisition apply only to the consolidated financial statements.
Impact of standards adopted during 2019
The Group has adopted the following new standards and interpretations from 1 January 2019 onwards:
IFRS 16 Leases (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019).
IFRS 16 was adopted retrospectively effective from 1 January 2019. In accordance with the transition provisions of the standard, the adoption was made using the simplified approach and the comparison figures for the financial year 2018 have not been adjusted.
Accordingly, the classification changes and adjustments arising from the new rules concerning leases have been recognised in the opening balance sheet of 1 January 2019.
As a result of the adoption of the standard, nearly all leases except short-term leases with a term of less than 12 months and leases of low-value assets were transferred to the balance sheet as right-of-use assets. Operating leases and finance leases will no longer be differentiated between. The change moved off-balance sheet obligations to the balance sheet and thus increased the amount of property, plant and equipment as well as liabilities.
Lessor accounting will not be subject to significant changes. Alma Media has no significant leases in which the Group is the lessor. The concepts of agreements processed as off-balance sheet liabilities and the concepts used in IFRS 16 are somewhat different from each other, which is why the number of agreements recognised on the balance sheet may differ from the number of off-balance sheet liabilities. The lease contracts recognised on the balance sheet are mainly for business premises and cars. Leases for IT equipment, on the other hand, are treated as off-balance sheet obligations, unlike previously.
The adoption of IFRS 16 and the impact of the changes are described in more detail in note 3.4. Financial liabilities include leases.
Other amended standards that entered into effect in 2019 had no material effect on Alma Media’s consolidated financial statements.
Translation of items denominated in foreign currencies
Figures in the consolidated financial statements are shown in euro, the euro being the functional and presentation currency of the parent company. Foreign currency items are entered in EUR at the rates prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary foreign currency items are translated into EUR using the rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary foreign currency items are measured at their fair value and translated into EUR using the rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. In other respects, non-monetary items are measured at the rates prevailing at the transaction date.
Exchange rate differences arising from sales and purchases are treated as additions or subtractions respectively in the statement of comprehensive income. Exchange rate differences related to loans and loan receivables are taken to other finance income and
expenses in the profit or loss for the period.
The income statements of foreign Group subsidiaries are translated into EUR using the weighted average rates during the period, and their balance sheets at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Goodwill arising from the acquisition of foreign companies is treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign units in question and translated into EUR at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Translation differences arising from the consolidation of foreign subsidiaries and associated companies are entered under shareholders’ equity. Exchange differences arising on a monetary item that forms part of the reporting entity’s net investment in the foreign operation shall be
recognised in the balance sheet and reclassified from equity to profit or loss on disposal of the net investment.
Operating profit and EBITDA
IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements does not include a definition of operating profit or gross margin. Gross margin is the net amount formed when other operating profit is added to net sales, and material and service procurement costs adjusted for the
change in inventories of finished and unfinished products, the costs arising from employee benefits and other operating expenses are subtracted from the total. Operating profit is the net amount formed when other operating profit is added to net sales, and
the following items are then subtracted from the total: material and service procurement costs adjusted for the change in inventories of finished and unfinished products; the costs arising from employee benefits; depreciation, amortisation and impairment costs;
and other operating expenses. All other items in the profit or loss not mentioned above are shown under operating profit. Exchange rate differences and changes in the fair value of derivative contracts are included in operating profit if they arise on items related
to the company’s normal business operations. Otherwise they are recognised in financial items.
Adjusted items are income or expense arising from non-recurring or rare events. Gains or losses from the sale or discontinuation of business operations or assets, gains or losses from restructuring business operations as well as impairment losses of goodwill and other assets are recognised by the Group as adjusted items. Adjusted items are recognised in the profit and loss statement within the corresponding income or expense group.
Adjusted items are described in the Report by the Board of Directors.
Accounting principles requiring management’s judgement and key sources of estimation uncertainty
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make estimates and assumptions which may differ from actual results in the future. Management is also required to use its discretion as to the application of the accounting principles used to prepare the statements.
Accounting principles requiring management’s judgement
The management of the Group makes judgement-based decisions pertaining to the selection and application of the accounting principles used in the financial statements.
This particularly applies in cases where the existing IFRS regulations allow for alternative methods of recognition, measurement and presentation. A significant area in which the management has exercised this type of judgement is related to the Group’s lease agreements. The Group has significant lease agreements for its business premises. Based on assessment of the terms of the agreements, the Group has determined that it does not bear any significant rewards and risks incidental to the ownership of the premises and therefore the agreements are by nature operating lease agreements.
Alma Media has identified subscription products and customer loyalty products inaccordance with the provisions of IFRS 15. As the item prices of these products are notmaterial, they are not treated as separate performance obligations based on the management’s assessment of materiality. The revenue derived from such products is recognised as part of the main products.
According to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, an entity shall recognise revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer. Alma Media’s exception to the revenue recognition practices required by IFRS 15 is the recognition of revenue from credit packages associated with the recruitment business. In credit package transactions, the customer buys credits against which Alma Media provides advertising sales services during the validity of the credits, subject to an agreed-upon price list. According to the management’s assessment, recognising revenue evenly over the contract period instead of a revenue recognition model based on actual use leads to essentially the same outcome as recognising revenue based on the use of the credits.
In accordance with IFRS 5, the consolidated income statement presents the result of discontinued operations separately from the result of continuing operations. The proportion of the Group’s expenses that is estimated to no longer burden the result of the continuing operations has been allocated to the discontinued operations. Conversely, the proportion of the expenses that is estimated to continue to burden the result of the Group’s continuing operations has been allocated to the continuing operations.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty
The estimates made in conjunction with preparing the financial statements are based on the management’s best assessments on the reporting period end date. The estimates are based on prior experience, as well as future assumptions that are considered to be the most likely on the balance sheet date with regard to issues such as the expected development of the Group’s economic operating environment in terms of sales and cost levels. The Group monitors the realisation of estimates and assumptions, as well as changes in the underlying factors, on a regular basis in cooperation with the business units, using both internal and external sources of information. Any changes to these estimates and assumptions are entered in the accounts for the period in which the estimate or assumption is adjusted and for all periods thereafter.
Future assumptions and key sources of uncertainty related to estimates made on the balance sheet date that involve a significant risk of changes to the book values of the Group’s assets and liabilities during the following financial year are presented below. The Group’s management has considered these components of the financial statements to be the most relevant in this regard, as they involve the most complicated accounting policies from the Group’s perspective and their application requires the most extensive application of significant estimates and assumptions – for example, in the valuation of assets. In addition, the effects of potential changes to the assumptions and estimates used in these components of the financial statements are estimated to be the largest.
The determination of the fair value of intangible assets in conjunction with business combinations is based on the management’s estimate of the cash flows related to the assets in question. The determination of the fair value of liabilities related to contingent considerations arising from business combinations are based on the management’s estimate. The key variable in the change in fair value of contingent considerations is the estimate of future operating profit.
Impairment tests: The Group tests goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite useful life for impairment annually and reviews any indications of impairment in the manner described above. The amounts recoverable from cash-generating units are recognised
based on calculations of their fair value. The preparation of these calculations requires the use of estimates. The estimates and assumptions used to test major goodwill items for impairment, and the sensitivity of changes in these factors with respect to goodwill
testing is described in more detail in the note which specifies goodwill.
Useful lives: Estimating useful lives used to calculate depreciation and amortisation also requires management to estimate the useful lives of these assets. The useful lives applied for each type of asset are listed in the notes under 2.2 Property, Plant and Equipment and 2.1 Intangible Assets.
Other estimates: Other management estimates relate mainly to other assets, such as the current nature of receivables and capitalised R&D costs, to tax risks, to determining pension obligations and to the utilisation of tax assets against future taxable income.
The impacts of the coronavirus epidemic and restriction measures set to prevent its spread on Alma Media’s business operations, especially on advertisement sales and client invoicing of the recruitment business, were assessed in 2020.